Are you trying to find out how does garcinia cambogia affect the liver? If you’re like most people, you’ve probably been searching for answers for that very question. Fortunately, there is a great deal of information on the internet, so you should be able to get your answers quickly and easily.
Hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells
A plethora of studies have uncovered the many benefits of consuming garcinia cambogia. Its potent antioxidant properties may help prevent or at least delay oxidative stress, as well as a number of other ailments. Moreover, its anti-inflammatory properties have been reported to ameliorate the effects of liver cancer. Interestingly, it has also been found to exhibit a biphasic effect, meaning that the doses used are distinctly different. For example, the highest tested dose of a certain compound were far less effective at reducing lipid levels than the lower doses. Similarly, a higher concentration of another substance was less effective at enhancing hepatic health. Despite these challenges, a small amount of Garcinia cambogia extract was still found to contain the magic formula. The key to success was identifying the proper formulation and dosage.
To get a handle on the true efficacy of garcinia cambogia and to determine the best dosage levels, we first screened a small sample of a standardized commercially available extract. This was followed by a second, and much more thorough, series of trials using the same compound. Finally, we examined the effect of the compound on a small subset of a highly selected cell line to assess the degree of efficacy. The results were encouraging, and we will be publishing our findings in a forthcoming paper. As with most clinical trials, we have found that a low dose may be all that is needed to achieve the desired effect. Nevertheless, a higher dose ain’t a bad thing. We hope to continue our research on this and other topics in the near future.
High-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice
Garcinia cambogia (GC) has been reported to have anti-obesity properties. It is a fruit extract, rich in hydroxycitric acid (HCA) and polyphenols, which inhibit fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidation.
Several studies have reported the antiobesity effects of Garcinia/HCA. These include its ability to increase energy expenditure, reduce food intake, suppress adiposity, and regulate several genes involved in adipogenesis. In this study, the effects of long-term Garcinia/HCA supplementation on hepatic steatosis and adipose tissue were examined.
Male C57BL/6J mice were acclimated to room temperature of 24 degC and housed in polycarbonate cages. They were fed either a high-fat diet or a normal chow diet. Their diet was supplemented with 500 mg/kg body weight of a mixture of probiotics for nine weeks.
The high-fat diet contained 45 kcal% fat. HFD feeding increased lipid peroxidation, metabolic endotoxemia, and hepatic collagen accumulation. Plasma lipid levels included HDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins, triglycerides, and free fatty acids. However, these measurements were not significantly different between the groups.
The mRNA expression of several inflammatory response genes was increased in the HFD group, whereas the expression of some adipogenesis-related genes was decreased. This suggests that the effects of HFD on adipocytes may be related to increased hepatic fatty acid oxidation.
The proportion of the rumen bacterial population decreased by 1.20E-5, and the unclassified rumen bacterium NK4A66 was decreased by 1.20E-5. Furthermore, GC-supplemented mice showed an up-regulation of mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation genes.
These results suggest that long-term Garcinia/HCA supplementation may have a negative effect on hepatic steatosis. Moreover, the decrease in the adipocyte size and the hepatic fatty acid oxidation observed in the GC-supplemented mice may be due to the attenuation of malonyl-CoA concentration.
Finally, adipocytes were analyzed with a pairwise t-test to determine whether the effect of GC on adipocyte size was dependent on the type of adipocyte. Four adipocyte types were identified, which were classified as MAT, SAT, EAT, and PAT. Each adipocyte was plotted using a pairwise t-test. A significant difference was detected in the size of SAT and EAT adipocytes.
Despite the positive effects of Garcinia/HCA on obesity, there is a need for further studies to clarify the role of this supplement in reducing hepatic steatosis. It is also necessary to identify the underlying mechanisms of this treatment.
Effects on apoptosis
Garcinia cambogia has been found to exert a number of effects, including anti-ulcerogenic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and erythropoetic activities. These effects are attributed to the phytochemicals present in the fruit. In particular, garcinol is a polyisoprenylated chalcone that possesses anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties.
Garcinol has been shown to have potent growth inhibitory activity against human leukemia HL-60 cells. It also inhibits the formation of COX-1-derived compounds, such as thromboxane B2 in human platelets. However, the exact molecular mechanisms are still unknown.
Garcinol can be extracted from the fruit rind of Garcinia indica by hexane extraction. The extract is then hydrolyzed with dilute alkali to obtain the reaction products. Some of the reaction products inhibit nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes. Nitric oxide is an important signaling molecule that is involved in several physiological processes.
Apoptosis is induced by a variety of mechanisms. During apoptosis, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential occurs. Garcinol induces apoptosis by reducing the activity of FAK and STAT-1, and by inducing caspase-3. Furthermore, garcinol reduces the levels of iNOS protein.
Although some reports suggest that garcinol has proapoptogenic properties, these effects appear to be weakened by antiinflammatory and antioxidative characteristics. Moreover, antiangiogenic effects seem to be moderated by the ability of the compound to bind to the p300/CPB-associated factor.
To study the cytotoxic effects of the HCA in vivo, human peripheral blood cells were treated with HCA for three hours. Afterwards, the cells were stained with annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Necrotic cell populations were not detected by the TB test. This result indicates that garcinol was more effective than curcumin.
An assessment of the bioavailability of the various metabolites of the Garcinia cambogia fruit is important to assess the drug’s effectiveness. To do this, researchers have used a number of analytical methodologies. For example, Chattopadhyay and Kumar developed a rapid method for isoprenylated benzophenones. Other methodologies include HPLC-UV and LC/ESI-MS/MS.
Various studies have been carried out to investigate the bioavailability and toxicity of the various metabolites of the Garcinia fruit. However, the bioavailability of the whole extract has not yet been studied. Consequently, a number of sporadic cases of severe adverse reactions have been reported.
Safety and effectiveness
Garcinia cambogia is an herb that has been used as a food preservative, but it is also a dietary supplement. It has a potential to lower triglycerides and insulin, and it can protect against a high fat diet. However, it has also been associated with hepatotoxicity.
Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers Garcinia cambogia to be unsafe. This is due to the fact that it has been linked to hepatotoxicity. The FDA has issued an advisory warning against the use of Garcinia cambogia.
Hydroxycitric acid, the active component of Garcinia cambogia, is known to inhibit the enzyme ATP-citrate lyase, which is involved in lipid biosynthesis. In addition, the HCA also inhibits the release of serotonin. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that is involved in a variety of functions, including mood.
Despite these potential benefits, Garcinia cambogia is not recommended for people with cholesterol prescriptions. Because of the potential for toxicity, it should not be taken by pregnant women. Similarly, it should not be combined with other medications. If it is taken with a prescription for insulin, a person is at risk for hypoglycemia.
Several studies have shown that hydroxycitric acid can be toxic when taken in high doses. Studies conducted on animals have found that it has a negative effect on testicles. However, a few human clinical trials have reported that it has a positive effect.
In one study, a woman with a body mass index of 45 kg lost about 45 kg. She discontinued the product when she started experiencing nausea and fatigue. Another study showed that a 26-year-old obese Canadian woman took Garcinia cambogia and green tea for about a month before she stopped the supplements. Her liver biopsy showed signs of acute inflammatory infiltration and lobular disarray.
Some studies suggest that a few people may experience manic symptoms when taking Garcinia cambogia. Other reports suggest that people who take Garcinia cambogia and antidepressants are at increased risk of depression. Taking it with other herbs can increase the risk of toxicity.
Hydroxycut is a dietary supplement that contains garcinia cambogia. This supplement was part of the Herbalife formula.